Advisory for the month of October 2017

Presently kharif onion crop is standing in field and late kharif onion is to be transplanted. It is also time to prepare for rabi onion nursery. Planting onion bulbs and garlic cloves is also normally done in October. The following advisory should be followed in this situation.

A. For standing kharif onion crop

1.   If there is a continuous rainfall, the excess water should be drained out properly to avoid anthracnose incidence. If there is drought, the advisory as given on this website under ‘Agropedia’ may be followed.

2.   Foliar application of micronutrient mixture @ 5 g/L is recommended at 60 and 75 days after transplanting.

3.   If nitrogen deficiency (yellowing of leaves) appears in the field, foliar application of urea @ 10 g/L is recommended.

4.   Foliar spray with methomyl (0.8 g/L) along with mancozeb (2.5 g/L) is recommended after 45 days of transplanting to control thrips and foliar diseases.

5.   Foliar spray with carbosulfan (2 ml/L) along with tricyclazole (1 g/L) is recommended after 10-15 days of first spray, if required.

6.   Foliar spray with profonophos (1 ml/L) along with hexaconazole @ (1 g/L) is recommended after 10-15 days of second spray, if required.

 

B. For transplanting late kharif onion seedlings

1.   Field should be ploughed and disked properly to eliminate debris and soil clods.

2.   Apply FYM 15 t/ha or poultry manure 7.5t/ha or vermicompost 7.5 t/ha at the time of last ploughing and level the field properly prior to bed preparation.

3.   Adopt broad bed furrows (BBF) of 15 cm height and 120 cm top width with 45 cm furrow. This will help to drain the excess water through furrow and in reducing anthracnose disease. BBF method is suitable for drip and sprinkler irrigation.

4.   For drip irrigation, each BBF should have two drip laterals at (16 mm size) 60 cm with inbuilt emitters. Distance between two inbuilt emitters should be around 30-50 cm and discharge flow rate of 4L/hr is advised.

5.   For sprinkler the distance between laterals (20 mm) of micro sprinkler should be 6 m with a discharge rate of 135L/hr.

6.   Apply chemical fertilizers @ 110:40:60 kg N, P2O5, K2O per hectare need to be applied. Also apply 15 kg sulphur/ha in soils having available sulphur level above 25 kg/ha while 30 kg sulphur/ha for soils having sulphur content below 25 kg/ha.

7.   Nitrogen @ 40 kg and full dose of P2O5 and K2O and sulphur needs to be applied at the time of planting. Remaining dose of N needs to be applied in two equal splits at 30 days and 45 days after transplanting.

8.   If onion is grown with drip system, application of 40 kg nitrogen as basal dose at the time transplanting and remaining nitrogen in six equal splits through drip irrigation should be applied up to 60 days from transplanting at 10 days interval. P, K and S should be applied as basal at the time of transplanting.

9.   Biofertilizers @ 5 kg/ha each Azospirillum and phosphorus solublizing bacteria are recommended along with inorganic fertilizers as basal dose.

10.   Apply oxyflurofen @ 23.5% EC (1.5 -2.0 ml/L)/ pendimethalin @ 30% EC (3.5-4ml/L) before transplanting or at the time of transplanting.

11.  Seedlings of 35-40 days old should be transplanted at a spacing of 15×10 cm (15 cm between the rows and 10 cm   between plants).

12. Proper care should be taken while selecting seedlings for transplanting. Over and under aged seedlings should be avoided. Top rd of seedlings should be cut before transplanting.

13.  The onion seedling should be transplanted after dipping roots in carbendazim solution (0.1 %) to reduce the incidence of fungal diseases.

14.  Irrigation at the time of transplanting and three days after transplanting is advised for good establishment.

C. For rabi onion nursery preparation

The following points need to be considered while preparing onion nursery.

1.   About 0.05 ha nursery bed area and 5-7 kg of seeds is recommended for getting seedlings to transplant in one hectare.

2.   Deep ploughing is recommended for exposing the insect pupae and weed seeds to sunlight.

3.   The debris of previous crops, weeds and stones should be removed before bed preparation.

4.   Apply half ton of well decomposed farmyard manure in 0.05 ha.

5.   Raised bed of 10-15 cm height, 1 m width and length as per convenience need to be prepared.

6.   Application of pre-emergence herbicide pendimethalin @ 0.2% is recommended to control weeds in nursery.

7.   Seeds should be treated with carbendazim @ 1-2 g/kg seed before sowing to avoid soil born diseases.

8.   Application of Trichoderma viride @ 1250 g/ha is also recommended to manage damping off and raise healthy seedlings.

9.   Apply 4:1:1 kg NPK/500 m² before seed sowing.

10.Seeds should be sown in lines at 50 mm to 75 mm apart. After sowing, the seeds should be covered with fine powdered farmyard manure or compost followed by light watering. Drip or sprinkler irrigation is recommended.

11.Drenching of metalaxyl @ 0.2% is recommended to control damping off in the nursery at 15days after sowing.

12.Hand weeding needs to be done 20 days after sowing.

13.Apply 2 kg N /500 m² after hand weeding.

14.When the severity of thrips infestation is high, foliar application of fipronil/profenophos @ 1 ml/L is recommended.

15.Foliar application of mancozeb/tricyclozole/hexaconazole @ 0.1% is recommended to control foliar diseases.

D. Main field preparation for garlic planting

Main field should be prepared as per recommended practices given below.

1.   Field should be ploughed and prepared properly to eliminate debris and soil clods.

2.   Apply FYM 15 t/ha or poultry manure 7.5 t/ha or vermicompost 7.5 t/ha at the time of last ploughing and level the field properly prior to bed preparation.

3.   Chemical fertilizers @ 75:40:40:40 kg N, P2O5, K2O, S per hectare need to be applied. Nitrogen @ 25 kg and full dose of P2O5 and K2O and sulphur needs to be applied at the time of planting. Remaining dose of N needs to be applied in two equal splits at 30 days and 45 days after planting.

4.   If garlic is grown with drip system, application of 25 kg nitrogen as basal dose at the time of planting and remaining nitrogen is recommended in six equal splits through drip irrigation up to 60 days from planting at 10 days interval. P, K and S should be applied as basal at the time of planting.

5.   Biofertilizers @ 5 kg/ha each Azospirillum and phosphorus solublizing bacteria are recommended along with inorganic fertilizers as basal dose.

6.   Apply oxyflurofen @ 23.5% EC (1.5 -2 ml/L)/ pendimethalin @ 30% EC (3.5-4ml/L) before planting or at the time of planting.

7.   Big cloves of about 1.5 g should be selected for planting. Small, diseased and damaged cloves should be rejected.

8. Treat cloves with carbendazim solution (0.1%) for two hours to reduce the incidence of fungal diseases during establishment.

9.   Cloves should be planted vertically 2 cm below soil surface with plant to plant spacing of 10 cm and row to row spacing of 15 cm. Seed rate for garlic is 400-500 kg/ha.

10. Adopt broad bed furrows (BBF) of 15 cm height and 120 cm top width with 45 cm furrow. BBF method is suitable for drip and sprinkler irrigation.

11. For drip irrigation, each BBF should have two drip laterals of 16 mm size. Distance between two inbuilt emitters should be around 30-50 cm and discharge flow rate of 4L/h is advised.

12.For sprinkler the distance between laterals (20 mm) of micro sprinkler should be 6 m with a discharge rate of 135L/h.

 

E. For planting onion bulbs for seed production

1.   Prior to planting, field should be ploughed and disked properly to eliminate debris and soil clods.

2.   Apply FYM 15 t/ha or poultry manure 7.5 t/ha or vermicompost 7.5 t/ha) should be incorporated at last ploughing.

3.   Ridges and furrows with 60 cm distance should be prepared for planting.

4.   Chemical fertilizers @ 100:50:50:50 kg N, P2O5, K2O and S per hectare need to be applied. One third of recommended N and full dose of P2O5 and K2O and sulphur are to be applied at the time of planting while remaining two third N is applied in two equal splits at 30 and 45 days after planting.

5.   If crop is grown with drip system, 35 kg nitrogen is recommended as basal dose at planting and remaining nitrogen in six equal splits through drip irrigation is recommended up to 60 days after planting at 10 days interval.

6.   Biofertilizers: Azospirillum and phosphorus solublizing bacteria @ 5 kg/ha each are recommended along with chemical fertilizers.

7.   Apply oxyflurofen @ 23.5% EC (1.5 -2.0 ml/L) or pendimethalin @ 30% EC (3.5-4ml/L) at the time of planting.

8.   Medium sized bulbs of about 50-60 g should be selected for planting. Small, diseased and damaged bulbs should be rejected. Seed bulb rate varies with size of the bulb. The seed bulb rate is 3 -3.5 t/ha.

9. Treat bulbs with carbendazim solution (0.1%) for two hours to reduce the incidence of fungal diseases during establishment. Top rd portion of bulbs should be cut before fungicide treatment.

10.  Bulbs should be planted on side of ridge at 20 cm spacing between plants.

 

F. For stored rabi onion and garlic bulbs

1.   Monitor stored bulbs regularly for sprouting and rotting. Rotted and bruised bulbs if any should be removed immediately. Make sure that ventilation is proper.

2.   Onion bulbs should be spread properly with heap height up to 4-5 feet only.

3.   Garlic bulbs with leaves should be stored in ventilated storage structure by hanging or in circular heaps tapering towards top.

 

Note: Carbosulfan, profenophos, fipronil and methomyl are recommended only when the thrips damage is visible. Mancozeb, hexaconazole, propiconazole and tricyclozol are recommended only when the disease incidence is visible.